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"Greensleeves" is a traditional English folk song and tune, basically a ground of the form called a romanesca.
The widely-believed legend is that it was composed by King Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) for his lover and future queen consort Anne Boleyn. Anne, the youngest daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, rejected Henry's attempts to seduce her. This rejection is apparently referred to in the song, when the writer's love "cast me off discourteously." It is not known if the legend is true, but the song is still commonly associated with Boleyn in the public mind.
It likely circulated in manu????, as most social music did, long before it was printed. A tune by this name was registered at the London Stationer's Company in 1580 as "A New Northern Dittye of the Lady Greene Sleeves." No copy of that printing is known. It appears in the surviving A Handful of Pleasant Delights (1584) as "A New Courtly Sonnet of the Lady Green Sleeves. To the new tune of Green sleeves." It remains debatable whether this suggests that an old tune of "Greensleeves" was in circulation, or which one our familiar tune is.
What Child Is This?" is a Christmas carol lyrically written in 1865 by William Chatterton Dix to the melody of "Greensleeves". Although the chorus changes from verse to verse, many recorded versions simply use the first chorus throughout, in part due to the rather unfestive content of the second.